What can we do with spent batteries?

Today, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications.

There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices that have low current drain, used only intermittently, or well away from an alternative power source, such as in alarm and communication circuits where other electric power is only intermittently available. Common types of disposable batteries include zinc–carbon batteries and alkaline batteries.

And secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used for multiple times. Batteries of this type include lead–acid battery, nickel–cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium-ion (Li-ion) and nickel–zinc (Ni-Zn).

Approximately 160 000 tonnes of consumer batteries, 190 000 tonnes of industrial batteries and 800 000 tonnes of vehicle batteries are sold in the EU every year, however, till 2002, half of the portable batteries sold in the EU were sent for final disposal in landfills or were incinerated, instead of being recycled.

Since several hundred thousand tonnes of industrial and portable batteries and accumulators are placed on the Community market every year, a wide range of metals are used, from mercury, lead and cadmium to nickel, copper, zinc, manganese and lithium.Collecting and recycling old batteries prevents these substances from getting into the environment and saves energy and natural resources.

Disposing of the waste from these products pollutes the atmosphere (in the case of incineration) and contaminates ground-cover and water (in the case of landfill or burial). Through appropriate rules it will be possible to reduce the environmental pollution from this waste. In addition, recycling the waste enables the recovery of some precious metals like nickel, cobalt and silver.

The most popular used batteries for power tools are Ni-cd, Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries. Usually lead-acid automotive batteries are recycled more readily than others (nearly 90% are recycled), but now, other types, such as alkaline and rechargeable mentioned before, can also be recycled, which will hep to reduce soil contamination and water pollution.

To ensure that a high proportion of spent batteries are recycled, the government must take whatever measures are needed (including economic instruments) to promote and maximize separate waste collections and prevent batteries being thrown away as unsorted municipal refuse. They have to make arrangements enabling end-users to discard spent batteries at collection points in their vicinity and have them taken back at no charge by the producers. Collection rates of at least 25% and 45% have to be reached by 26 September 2012 and 26 September 2016 respectively according to the directive in 2006.

As a minimum, treatment must include removal of all fluids and acids in EU. Batteries must be treated and stored (even if only temporarily) in sites with impermeable surfaces and weatherproof covering, or in suitable containers

To achieve this goal, it must be possible to remove batteries readily and safely. It is for Member States in EU to ensure that manufacturers design their appliances accordingly.
Also, Member States in EU have to ensure that, from 26 September 2009, batteries that have been collected are treated and recycled using the best available techniques. Recycling must exclude energy recovery. For example, a group named ‘Gravita ‘ in India is committed to the employment of environment friendly technologies in solutions for the used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling and Battery Manufacturing Industries, covering Secondary Lead Smelting, Lead Refining, Lead Alloying & Lead Oxides Manufacturing and Lead Pollution Control. They invent Air Filtration, Bag House Filtration equipments, both of them are important aspects of Battery Recycling procedure without which it is not feasible to carry on the process in Green concept.

As part of the program ‘Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ‘(WEEE), the directive in 1999 was only applied to batteries containing mercury, lead or cadmium, and excluded “bottom cells”. However, the 2006/66/EC directive aims to reduce the threats posed to human health and the environment by batteries that contain harmful materials. It represents a significant step up from the previous 1991 directive by making producers and importers fully responsible for the processing of waste batteries. Then in 2008, the new EU battery directive came into force is set to change how spent batteries are processed a national level.

End-users are to be informed in various ways:

1. Through campaigns covering, among other things, the potential effects on the environment and human health of the substances used in batteries and accumulators, and the collection and recycling arrangements at the end-users’ disposal;
2. Being directly informed by distributors that they can discard waste batteries and accumulators at sales points;
3. Visible, legible and indelible markings on batteries, accumulators and battery packs with the following information: the symbol of the crossed-out wheeled bin (in Annex II to the Directive); the capacity of the accumulator or the portable battery; the chemical symbols Hg, Cd and Pb if the batteries, accumulators or button cells contain over 0.0005% mercury, over 0.002% cadmium or over 0.004% lead. If the battery, accumulator or battery pack are too small, this information appears on the packaging.

Some municipalities will accept these batteries (as well as older, more toxic ones) at household hazardous waste facilities, from which they will most likely be sent elsewhere to be processed and recycled as components in new batteries.

Other options abound, such as the mail-order service, Battery Solutions website, which will recycle your spent batteries at a cost of 85 cents per pound. To find a company near you where you can drop off your old batteries for recycling, check out the comprehensive national database at the Earth911.org website. Meanwhile, the national chain, Batteries Plus, is happy to take back disposable batteries for recycling at any of its 255 retail stores coast-to-coast.
Especially, consumers should note that any old batteries they may find buried in their closets that were made before 1997—when Congress mandated a widespread mercury phase-out in batteries of all types—should most surely be recycled and not discarded with the trash, as they may contain as much as 10 times the mercury of newer versions.
Furthermore, they can find out where to drop off old rechargeable batteries (and even old cell phones) by calling RBRC’s hot-line or by visiting the online drop location finder at RBRC.org. Also, most Radio Shack stores will take back rechargeable batteries and deliver them to RBRC free-of-charge. RBRC then processes the batteries via a thermal recovery technology that reclaims metals such as nickel, iron, cadmium, lead and cobalt, re-purposing them for use in new batteries.

Now we all know that the widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, especially toxic metal pollution. Battery manufacture consumes resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Some areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the materials from used batteries as we mentioned above. Batteries may be harmful or fatal if swallowed. Recycling or proper disposal prevents dangerous elements (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium) found in some types of batteries from entering the environment. The Battery Directive of the European Union has already come up with some requirements, in addition to requiring increased recycling of batteries, and promoting research on improved battery recycling methods. In accordance with this directive all batteries to be sold within the EU must be marked with the “collection symbol” (A crossed out wheeled bin). This must cover at least 3% of the surface of prismatic batteries and 1.5% of the surface of cylindrical batteries. All packaging must be marked likewise.

Except EU, in United States, Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually, and about 179,000 tons of those end up in landfills across the country. The Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996 banned the sale of mercury-containing batteries, enacted uniform labeling requirements for rechargeable batteries, and required that rechargeable batteries be easily removable. California, and New York City prohibit the disposal of rechargeable batteries in solid waste, and along with Maine require recycling of cell phones. The rechargeable battery industry has nationwide recycling programs in the United States and Canada now, with drop off points at local retailers.

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What is UL 94 V0 plastic materials and how to verify it?

Q1: What is UL 94?

A1: UL 94 is a plastics flammability standard released by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) of the USA

The standard classifies plastics according to how they burn in various orientations and thicknesses. From lowest (least flame-retardant) to highest (most flame-retardant), the classifications are:

HB: Slow burning on a horizontal specimen; burning rate < 76 mm/min for thickness

V2: Burning stops within 30 seconds on a vertical specimen; drips of flaming particles are allowed.

V1: Burning stops within 30 seconds on a vertical specimen; no drips allowed.

V0: Burning stops within 10 seconds on a vertical specimen; no drips allowed.

5VB: Burning stops within 60 seconds on a vertical specimen; no drips allowed; plaque specimens may develop a hole.

5VA: Burning stops within 60 seconds on a vertical specimen; no drips allowed; plaque specimens may not develop a hole.

Tests are generally conducted on a 5″ x 1/2″ specimen of the minimum approved thickness. For 5VA and 5VB ratings, tests are performed on both bar and plaque specimens, and the flame ignition source is approximately five times as severe as that used for testing the other materials.

Q2: What is V0 flammability standard?

A2: If the plastic specimens reach V0 standard, they must:

Specimens must not burn with flaming combustion for more than 10 seconds after either test flame application.

Total flaming combustion time must not exceed 50 seconds for each set of 5 specimens.

Specimens must not burn with flaming or glowing combustion up to the specimen holding clamp.

Specimens must not drip flaming particles that ignite the cotton.

No specimen can have glowing combustion remain for longer than 30 seconds after removal of the test flame.

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What Is a Dewalt XRP Battery?

DeWalt XRP is a line of cordless ability resources that use high-capacity Dewlt Li-ion Battery. The DeWalt XRP line consists of cordless drill/drivers and cordless hammer drill. The XRP line was absolutely redesigned from its predecessors, for improved effectiveness, for a longer time run time involving costs and more time cordless power device battery everyday living. Most of the XRP batteries are backwards suitable with prior DeWalt drill batteries.

Batteries use while in the Dewalt XRP line:

The center of the DeWalt XRP line is really a new nano-phosphate components lithium-ion batteries. DeWalt statements that these new batteries have enhanced longevity could be re-charged nearly 2000 situations about the everyday living on the battery. The road incorporates 18-volt, fourteen.4-volt and 12-volt types.


Drill Transmission</br>
Every single product in the DeWalt XRP cordless drill provides a three-speed transmission (in which most other drills have a two-speed transmission). This more equipment lets the drilling motion to adapted properly for the endeavor at hand. Very first gear is for wood drilling with hole saws, second equipment for auger bits and 3rd gear for hammer drilling into concrete.


Drill Motor and Chuck</br>
The DeWalt XRP line of drills incorporates enhancements to your drill motors and chucks. The high-efficiency, frameless motors are built to have thirty % far more operate time, and so are linked to some self-tightening chuck that can help maintain the bits from slipping.


Durability

The DeWalt XRP line is intended with all steel gears and also a metallic gear scenario, that don’t just offers the drill greater longevity than former products, but it enables the drill to get increased dissipation of warmth. The drill motor brushes also are conveniently accessible for swift substitute.


Ergonomics

The DeWalt XRP line is built to ensure the drill has greater balance, in addition to a cushioned ergonomic grip to assist cut down operator exhaustion. Every single XRP drill also incorporates an LED get the job done gentle to illuminate the function surface area.

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How to prolong lithium-based batteries

Simple Guidelines

* Avoid frequent full discharges because this puts additional strain on the battery. Several partial discharges with frequent recharges are better for lithium-ion than one deep-one.

Recharging a partially charged lithium-ion battery does not cause harm because there is no memory effect (in this respect, lithium-ion differs from nickel-based batteries). Short battery life in a laptop is mainly caused by heat rather than charge / discharge patterns.

* Batteries with fuel gauge (laptops) should be calibrated by applying a deliberate full discharge once every 30 charges. Running the battery pack down in the device would do. If ignored, the fuel gauge will become increasingly less accurate and in some cases cut off the device prematurely.

* Keep the lithium-ion battery cool. Avoid keeping it in a hot car cabin. For prolonged storage, keep the battery at a 40% charge level.

* Consider removing the battery from a laptop when running on fixed power. Some laptop manufacturers also concern about dust and moisture accumulating inside the battery casing.

* Avoid purchasing spare lithium-ion batteries for later use. Observe manufacturing dates. Do not buy old stock, even if sold at clearance price.

* If you have a spare lithium-ion battery, use one to the fullest and keep the other one cool by placing it in the refrigerator. Do not freeze the battery. For best results, store the battery at 40% state-of-charge.

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What is the difference between Ni-Cd, Ni-MH and Li-ion

1) Li-ion (Lithium Ion). This is one of the newest cell types available. It is also the lightest battery type currently available on a commercial basis and can provide more power than the other main cell types. There are no known problems of memory effect with this battery type and it is the easiest battery type to care for. The downside of this battery is that it has the highest engineering costs and therefore the price is usually considerably higher than other cell types.

2) Ni-MH (Nickel Metal Hydride). This cell type is the most common cell type currently available for laptop computers, (although Li-ion is rapidly becoming the most popular) this battery type is relatively cheap to manufacture and therefore tends to be cheaper than Li-ion. This cell type is prone to memory effect so it is important to take good care of your Ni-MH battery to ensure that you obtain the best runtimes.

3) Ni-Cd (Nickel Cadmium). This is one of the oldest cell types and is generally only found in older laptops. The main pro for this cell type is its ability to handle higher loads, and therefore is more commonly found in portable power tools or devices that need a lot of power to work efficiently. The main downside of this cell type is that it is notorious for suffering with memory effect so good care must be taken with this battery to ensure most effective use of battery.

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Three Tips for Finding the Right Battery

Even though finding the right battery quickly can be a difficult task, here are three tips that should help make the process pain-free:

1) Locate the make and model of your machine: The make and model of your machine should be in plain sight on your computer/camera/camcorder/power tools etc. On many Dell laptops the make and model are listed near the power button. Many other models, including HP and Toshiba, have the make and model information near the power button or on the top of the computer.

2) Determine which cell size of battery you need: The cell size of a battery determines how much of a charge it holds once disconnected from a power source. Most laptops come standard with a 6 cell battery, but you can also get laptop batteries with 9 cells or 12 cells. You can determine which cell count you have currently by removing your battery from your laptop and reading the product information on the outside of it.

3) Decide how much you want to spend: Depending on your individual needs, you may or may not need to spend a lot of money on your replacement battery. If you are a casual user, the chances that you need a high capacity battery that can hold a charge for an extended period are slim. Many casual users can get a replacement laptop battery from $50-$70. If you are a power user, then you may find yourself wanting to spend anywhere from $80-$150 for a high capacity battery that has an extended life.

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How Can I Maximize the performance of My Battery

There are several steps you can take to insure that you get maximum performance from your battery:

1) Breaking In New Batteries – new batteries come in a discharged condition and must be fully charged before use. It is recommended that you fully charge and discharge your new battery two to four times to allow it to reach its maximum rated capacity.

2) Preventing the Memory Effect – Keep your battery healthy by fully charging and then fully discharging it at least once every two to three weeks. Exceptions to the rule are Li-Ion batteries which do not suffer from the Memory Effect.

3) Keep Your Batteries Clean – It’s a good idea to clean dirty battery contacts with a cotton swab and alcohol. This helps maintain a good connection between the battery and your portable device.

4) Exercise Your Battery – Do not leave your battery dormant for long periods of time. We recommend using the battery at least once every two to three weeks. If a battery has not been used for a long period of time, perform the new battery break in procedure described above.

5) Battery Storage – If you don’t plan on using the battery for a month or more, we recommend storing it in a clean, dry, cool place away from heat and metal objects. Ni-Cd, Ni-MH and Li-Ion batteries will self-discharge during storage; remember to break them in before use.

6) For Notebook Users – To get maximum performance from your battery, fully optimize the notebook’s power management features prior to use. Power management is a trade off: better power conservation in exchange for lesser computer performance. The power management system conserves battery power by setting the processor to run at a slower speed, dimming the screen, spinning down the hard drive when it’s not in use and causing the machine to go into sleep mode when inactive. Your notebook user’s guide will provide information relating to specific power management features.

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How to Replace Cordless Drill Batteries in the Battery Pack

  • Step 1: Remove the cordless drill from the charging station. Turn the drill off.

  • Step 2: Remove the battery pack. The battery pack is located on the bottom of a cordless drill and can be loosened by pressing two tabs, one on each side of the drill. Once loosened, pull the battery pack downward to remove it.
  • Step 3: Remove the battery cap. It usually just slides off, but it may be held in place with a small screw, depending on the cordless drill manufacture. If there is a screw, use a small Phillips-head screwdriver to unscrew the screw and then slide off.
  • Step 4: Remove the old batteries. Place the new batteries into place.
  • Step 5: Place the battery cap back over the batteries. If needed, screw the screw back into place.
  • Step 6: Slide the battery pack back into place on the bottom of the cordless drill. You should hear a snap or pop when the battery pack is firmly in place. Allow the new batteries to charge for at least 24 hours before use.
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    What is the battery“Memory effect”? How does it mean?

    Memory effect, which is often know as lazy battery effect, battery effect or battery memory, is an effect happen in the Ni-CD rechargeable batteries. This effect will cause the Ni-CD Batteries to hold less charge. It describes one very specific situation in which certain Ni-CD batteries lose their maximum energy capacity little by little if they are repeatedly recharged after not being fully charged.

    For example, if a 100% charged Ni-CD battery is used to 20% but not being fully charged, let us say it, charged to 80%, then the battery will “remember” 80% is a fully charged circle, so, in this case, the battery carry less capacity than before.

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